عنوان مقاله [English]
In the contemporary era, modern approaches to architecture, taking account their growing shortcomings in providing appropriate environment for human inhabitation and interaction with nature, lead to crisis in human life e.g. water, soil and air pollution. Therefore, new theories with various approaches are proposed primarily to improve, firstly, the relationship between man and nature and secondly to revive the presence of nature in the architecture. One of these leading theories is the concept of sustainability and sustainable architecture which attempts to decrease destructive issues of modern architecture and make a friendly relationship between architecture and nature aiming for contemporary and future generations to benefit from the natural environment properly. Even though sustainability has been successful to some extent in improving and enhancing of architecture approach to nature in some scopes, it seems that in the relation between human-made environment and human and nature, fundamental concepts and principles are ignored. Instead, much attention is attracted to limited aspects and consequently superficial concepts are addressed deeply to the extent that sometimes the status of nature is reduced to an ecosystem and a mere material phenomenon. Explaining dimensions and aspects of natural manifestation in traditional architecture, this research aimed to find a way out of problems caused by sustainability approach, to deal with its challenges and shortcomings, and finally to promote this concept. In order to achieve this aim, the appropriate relation between nature and architecture based on true understanding of nature is argued. Firstly, sustainable academic texts as well as Iranian historic ones, through Content Analysis method was studied while environmental sustainable architecture is criticized; secondly, based on Logical Argument method, the missing point of sustainable architecture approach is revealed; thirdly, Iranian traditional architecture was surveyed through the Grounded Theory method, focusing on the relationship between this architecture and nature. The study of traditional Architecture in Iran reveals clearly the consideration of three basic dimensions of nature: first, the physical dimension including natural elements, e.g. water, soil, trees, second, the intrinsic dimension (the essence of nature) including the qualitative properties of natural phenomena, on the one hand, and rules and principles of nature on the other hand, and finally, the symbolic dimension of the nature which represents a part of the beliefs of traditional mankind, employing some patterns and figures abstracted from the nature. Consequently, a new approach is employed considering not only nature, but also the essence and the symbolic dimension of nature. In this regard, architecture establishes a constructive dialogue with nature based on its triple dimensions. It seems interaction and relation between architecture and nature will improve. The manifestation of nature in architecture, based on its three aspects is illustrated with some cases from Iranian traditional architecture. This architecture as history testifies, through harmonic and evolutionary approaches, makes a true relationship with nature which not only derives benefits from nature, but also conserves and enhances it.