عنوان مقاله [English]
Architecture has always been a physical and spatial expression of social, cultural, climatic and economic conditions in the society. The architectural structure of the historical houses of the Qajar period has not followed the physical and psychological needs of the user depending on the background conditions in the same way and extent. Components such as house orientation, composition, decorations, hierarchy, function, scale, light and illumination are among the indicators that have been influenced by various factors and have shaped the form of architecture. This article seeks to analyze the effectiveness of the physical and spatial configuration components of historical houses of the Qajar period from culture and climate factors through a comparative comparison in two climates with a common feature including the hot and dry and hot and humid climates of Iran. The research method in this article is descriptive and analytical, and the collection of materials was done by library method and field observation. In the process of analyzing the subject of the research and in order to index the factors affecting the physical and spatial components, four Qajar houses with two different forms including the central courtyard and block forms were selected in the key cities of the mentioned climates to compare the contrasting forms in one climate and the same forms in different climates, the manner of effectiveness of the physical and spatial components of different factors should be determined. The results of the research indicate that in hot and dry climates, the cultural factor has the greatest impact on the scale of the house and the performance of the spaces, and the materials, composition, facade and decorations are most influenced by the climate, while in the hot and humid region, the components of hierarchy, facade and decorations, lighting are more influenced by culture and climate has the greatest impact on house form, orientation, materials and performance.