عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important factors on the Iranian architecture is Windcatcher. Iranian architects has been applied this element on climate designing. A windcatcher (wind tower, wind scoop) is a traditional architectural element used to create natural ventilation and passive cooling in buildings. Windcatchers come in various designs: unidirectional, bidirectional, and multidirectional. Windcatchers are widely used in North Africa and in the West Asian countries around the Persian Gulf, and have been for the past three thousand years. Windcatchers vary dramatically in shape, including height, cross-sectional area, and internal sub-divisions and filters. Windcatcher is a static cooling system, which provides buildings with natural ventilation using wind renewable energy. Windcatcher have been known as one of the most effective elements in Iranian ancient city architecture; so that, they have been identified as the second most important elements after Mosque Minaret. Nowadays, building industry and cooling and heating systems by using 40% and 60% of the world’s energy respectively are considered serious threats to the environment. Therefore, passive systems like Windcatchers could be adequate replacements with respect to energy consumption. Current project aims to study Windcatchers in the traditional architecture of Semnan. 37 buildings with architectural values were selected in the field study and their Windcatcher characteristics were evaluated. Results show that buildings such as Ab anbar, Government House and historical houses had Windcatchers in the past. Windcatcher characteristics included their northward direction, X-shape blades, heights between 2 to 11.5 meters and their horizontal roof. Some of the Windcatchers were decorated using bricks, chalk, cobb or clom but the others were not decorated at all.