استادیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، اوین، ایران
چکیده موضوع معماری بومی از قرن 18 میلادی به صورتی جدی مورد توجّه علاقهمندان آن قرار گرفته و تاکنون نیز این علاقه و توجّه ادامه داشته است. در طول این زمان دهة 1960 از اهمّیّتی خاص برخوردار است. در این دوران مطالعات و تحقیقات معماری بومی با هدف و نگرش جدید صورت گرفت و دنبال شد. تا سال 1960، اکثر مطالعات انجام شده بر روی معماری بومی، بر مبنای علایق شخصی و اهداف فردی معدود علاقه مندان آن انجام میشد. لیکن پس از سال 1960، در نتیجه رشد و گسترش معماری مدرن و ظاهر شدن کمبودهای آن و پدیدار گردیدن شک و تردیدهایی نسبت به این نوع معماری، مطالعات مربوط به معماری بومی با دیدگاهی نو و نیاتی جدید و در سطحی وسیعتر به وسیلة محققین معماری مورد توجّه قرار گرفت. این نگرش نه تنها در کشورهای غربی بلکه متعاقب آن در کشورهای در حال توسعه و کشورهای اسلامی نیز بروز پیدا کرد. اثرات این موج به کشور ما ایران نیز رسید و پس از انقلاب اسلامی با پدیدار شدن شرایط مساعدتر جامعه، با قوت و قدرت بیشتری پیگیری گردید. مقاله حاضر سعی دارد که به این مساله پرداخته و در این راستا مطالبی را ارائه نماید.
The history and causes of attention to the vernacular architecture in Western countries,
Developing Countries, Islamic countries, and Iran .
Abstract The subject of vernacular architecture has been under consideration of the western countries since the 18th century. At that time because of the colonization of the African and Oceania countries by the Europeans, the issues like lifestyle, culture, art, and architecture of these people became interesting for them. So the Europeans started to study these conditions in the colonized countries. This was effective on the art and literature of their owns cultures, and a new vision to the vernacular architecture. This attachment was continued until 1960s. At that time a turning point happened. In 1960s by the growth of the modern architecture in many part of the world, and appearance of its difficulties and shortcomings in the real life, some doubts and deliberations occurred among these societies. The professionals and responsible architects were looking for the solutions. In this regard they became attracted to the vernacular architecture and tried to find new ways by inspiration from its vital principles. So, after the 1960s vernacular architecture went under the serious consideration of the researchers and interested architects. It was now studied by a new goal and among many individuals in a large amount of attention. This wave of new look to the vernacular architecture distributed to the other parts of the world, such as developing countries as well. In these countries progress and development had been identified with the simple adoption of western knowledge, methods, and materials. So they changed their rich traditional architecture to the modern western style of architecture. As a result they lost their own heritage and achieved a new architecture accompany by new difficulties. Therefore the new return to the vernacular architecture and getting inspiration from its principles, was a good solution for their problems, and became under a serious attention by the interested architects of these countries. In the Islamic societies, the traditional life of Muslims had been denied because of adoption to the western concepts in all aspects of the society, and in the field of architecture as well. Therefore the movement of attention to the vernacular culture was welcomed very well in these societies. It was called commonly, the Islamic revival of resurgence. The rediscovery of Islamic building traditions were also called in some countries as the "Renaissance of Islamic Architecture". Iran, like many other Islamic developing countries had been faced with major changes from the traditional system to the contemporary, so called Modern/Western system. The process of westernization formed and fostered socio-cultural conflicts with the traditional value system of the society and led to many events. Above all was the Islamic Revolution of 1979. Since then; a reversion took place in the country, restructuring of the society got under way in many aspects, and among them was the architectural realm. This viewpoint is still among the important concerns of the society
کلیدواژه ها [English]
vernacular architecture in West, Developing Countries, Islamic countries, and Iran
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