نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری اسلامی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنراسلامی تبریز
2 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز
عنوان مقاله [English]
Sufism and Khanqah buildings are an integral part of Iranian architecture history that was considered a center for promoting Islam and its expansion in different regions for centuries. Many consider Khanqah as one of the charity buildings; because these buildings often provided the required welfare amenities for the settlement of sufis, travelers, and people of that region, such as a chamber for resting and settling, a kitchen for preparing daily meals, a mosque, school, caravanserai, cistern, etc., Having these services all together was beneficial for a Sufi, whose job was praying and mysticism, a traveler, who intended to settle in his way, and poor people. Khanqah systems were formed in various ways from an architectural perspective over their lifetime due to their status, manner, and in the period of different governments. Studying and recognizing its various aspects reveals the latent dimensions of these buildings built in any land once upon a time. Timurid era was the last period of the history of Iranian architecture in which the khanqah system, as an essential pillar in terms of the history culture and architecture, played a determining role study of which seems necessary. The nature of khanqah must be considered disregarding a place for mysticism and praying because khanqahs were often associated with the society and linked to significant urban facilities, such as mosques, schools, caravanserai, baths, etc.
In recent years, few studies have been done on the aspects of the formation and architecture of the khanqah. The lack of sufficient study in this regard raises questions about its architecture. The current study aims to analyze the cultural context of Sufism and identify the patterns of khanqah system formed in the Timurid era in central Asia, Southern Asia, and a part of contemporary Iran. This research was a descriptive-analytical study. It was attempted to identify the aspects of the cultural history of khanqah by examining library sources, such as books, papers, historical and architectural evidence, recognize khanqah spaces and draw patterns of khanqah in the Timurid era by analyzing technical architectural and research documents. Research findings show that khanqahs of the Timurid era consisted of a central core, such as a main dome house or courtyard that other spaces were formed around them as a result of which the khanqahs of this period were built based on two patterns: single-buildings and complex-Arsen.