عنوان مقاله [English]
A population of 8.9 billion up to 2050 will need more energy and resource. The economic growth accelerates fossil fuel exhaustion by the end of this century. Energy has an important role in sustainable development; therefore, the world will encounter energy crisis. In our country, vast expanse of hot dry climate is extending and so is the need of energy for cooling systems (cooling consumes more energy than heating). On the other hand, sustainability of an Oil-dependant economy will be threatened by energy crisis. Surveys reveal that 50 to 60 percent of energy consumption and also carbon and construction waste production is related to architecture and urban design. Since the total energy of the building is a combination of embodied energy and operational energy this essay aims to analyze them to find the best method for energy use reduction.
Measurement of the embodied energy is not possible in Iran, owing to not having access to accurate information about the process of construction, material, details, transportation, repairs and maintenance. Therefore, some experiments of other countries were studied and their results were used to do this research. Results of this research show the importance of initial design, effective details and improvement of construction methods which can increase the durability of a building. Durable materials with less embodied energy and modern repair and maintenance methods can lead us to this goal. Furthermore, comparing embodied energy with operational energy showed that an increase in the first one, by means of extra insulation, making thermal inertia by increasing width of walls and ceilings will reduce operational energy and as well total energy use.
Comprehensive system of architecture is able to make a wise balance between embodied energy and operational energy through energy-based initial design, designing flexible patterns, using materials with less embodied energy, increasing lifespan of the building, using proper details with reversible dry connections, and modern construction methods. Finally, a proper portion of energy in normal lifespan of a building will lead to reduction of total energy in architecture. Strategies recommended to reduce total energy of the building during its lifespan through decreasing and conserving embodied energy are as follows:
• Initial design with energy saving approach, using long-lasting reversible, flexible, changeable construction and architecture patterns, and using durable materials with least embodied energy in production phase.
• Improving technology efficiency of factories produce materials with least embodied energy, increasing the efficiency of the transportation system, decreasing carrying distance and reusing materials, installation of accessible facilities in the walls, ceilings and floor.
• Improving the knowledge and methods used for splitting the components instead of demolition and using reversible proper construction details by means of dry connections (bolts and nuts) instead of wet connections (mortar, glue and resin).
• Regular wise reconstruction, retrofitting, renovation, repair, maintenance when necessary to increase lifespan of the building.
Keywords: Hot dry climate, Sustainable architecture, Energy consumption, Operational energy, Embodied energy, Reuse