عنوان مقاله [English]
Taking a look at inscriptions and writing inscriptions in the ornamentation of Islamic era monuments have been used and considered by Muslim artists as a link of the handwriting and architecture since the early Islamic centuries, and this enduring art is still performed by the artists until the present time. Over time, historical monuments such as inscriptions are undoubtedly subjected to various damages, and these valuable works suffer from various perspectives of aesthetics, authenticity, unity, integrity, and readability. Since every year in the country, large-scale restoration operations are carried out and inscriptions are not excepted. Considering that inscriptions are accounted as an important part of the world's cultural heritage and are considered as the most important documents for research about historical monuments, but in most cases, the restoration of inscriptions is a matter of taste and sometimes are done incorrectly. For this reason, attempts were made to select some samples of restorations of written inscriptions and are critically studied from the viewpoint of the present theory restoration and the basics of visual arts. The results of the research indicate that the performed restorations are a matter of taste and the visual arts basics were not considered in the restoration of most of the written inscriptions, and the inscriptions have lost their beauty and integrity, readability and originality, etc. On one hand, there is a lack of criteria in accordance with the theoretical principles of restoration to restore the areas; there is lack of these categories of valuable written works. This issue has not been noticed not only in Iran, but also in the international community. Therefore, there is a need for a serious review of the issue of the criteria in accordance with the theoretical principles of restoration considering the importance of handwriting and calligraphy and observing the basics of the visual arts in the renovation of the written inscriptions. The results indicate that despite the lack of criteria for the restoration of the deficient area of inscriptions, the restorer should have an excellent command of maintaining integrity, authenticity and aesthetics, twelve components of calligraphy, different types of calligraphy, and the basics of visual arts, in addition to the theoretical foundations of restoration while restoring the deficient areas in the inscriptions. The research method of this article is qualitative and descriptively-comparative; the methods of finding in this research include field studies, reference to various sources and library studies and are applied in terms of purpose.