عنوان مقاله [English]
A study of the Safavid history shows that security can be a factor in the emergence of political authority and can directly affect trade and the economy. The concept of defense is of two types, active defense and passive defense. Although both have the same goals, their methods are very different. The purpose of this study is to study the caravanserais of the Safavid period from the perspective of passive defense. The study adopts a positivist approach to the subject in terms of research methodology, and, in terms of the purpose, it is based on comparative descriptions. The variables obtained based on documentary studies are the geographical location and importance of the roads, the plan forms (including rectangular and polygonal courtyards and introverted and extroverted roofed spaces), elements related to passive defense (including number of entrances, guard rooms and watchtowers) and physical analysis (including depth of access to rooms and the number of spatial layers). These variables focus on passive security and defense. Totally, 43 Safavid caravanserais are classified into four groups (rectangular with a courtyard, polygon with a courtyard, roofed introverted and roofed extroverted spaces), and the principles of passive defense are examined in them. The results show that rectangular and polygonal courtyard caravanserais as well as introverted indoor caravanserais have many similarities in terms of using physical elements for security. Extroverted indoor caravanserais, on the other hand, have different characteristics from other the types. In fact, the study shows that, mainly in areas where the natural elements of passive defense (such as mountains and rivers) do not exist and (for various reasons) agent defense is not justified or impossible, the architect has tried to provide most of the physical elements of security and passive defense against possible attacks by reducing entrances, creating a guard rooms and watchtowers, and increasing the depth of access and the number of layers of space as much as possible. In addition, the strategic position of the Persian Gulf coastal roads and the important role of these trade routes at the level of trade and economy of the country have made it necessary for the governments to ensure their security as an agent of defense. Therefore, in the caravanserais of this region, maintaining less security has been entrusted to the body of architecture. The results generally show that the variety of active defense and passive defense factors in caravanserais depends on the geographical location, the importance of the routes, and the architectural form of the caravanserais.