ارتباط مقیاس‌های آسایش حرارتی با مولفه‌های فیزیکی - محیطی؛ سنجش موردی: ساختمان مدیریت دانشگاه شیراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشگاه تهران، پردیس بین‌الملل کیش

2 استاد معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد روانشناسی، دانشکده روانشناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

10.29252/ahdc.2020.1989

چکیده

مطالعات آسایش حرارتی از دیدگاه­های متفاوتی قابل بحث است. سازگاری حرارتی روند تدریجی تطابق با شرایط و پاسخ به محرک­های حرارتی است که در سه دسته سازگاری فیزیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و روانی طبقه­بندی می­گردد. بنابراین آسایش حرارتی صرفا تحت تاثیر مولفه‌های اقلیمی نبوده و متغییرهای دیگری بر آن اثرگذارند. به همین دلیل تحقیقات متعددی جهت تعیین مولفه­ها و میزان اثر آنها تاکنون انجام شده­است. در این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی تاثیر همزمان مولفه­های فیزیکی و محیطی، مطالعه­ای میدانی در ساختمان اداری در شهر شیراز انجام شده­است. مولفه­های محیطی شامل دمای خشک، دمای کروی، دمای کروی مرطوب و رطوبت نسبی است که در فضای داخلی و خارجی ثبت شده­اند. مولفه­­های فیزیکی نیز شامل دید به اطراف، موقعیت مکانی، وضعیت بازشوها، سطح آلودگی صوتی، وضعیت روشنایی و چیدمان فضایی است. فرایند تحقیق میدانی شامل سه بخش توزیع پرسشنامه، مشاهده و ثبت داده­های آب­و­هوایی با استفاده از دیتالاگر است. مطالعه در مدت زمان چهار روز کاری در فصل زمستان انجام شده­است. نتایج بر روی 108 نفر کارمند در فصل زمستان نشان می­دهد، از میان مولفه­های محیطی بیشترین اثرگذاری بر ادراک حرارتی فرد به رطوبت نسبی وابسته است. تاثیر همزمان مولفه­های فیزیکی - محیطی نیز نشان می­دهد علاوه بر دما و رطوبت نسبی هوای داخل، وضعیت بازشوها و موقعیت مکانی فرد نیز اثرگذاری قابل توجهی بر احساس حرارتی فرد دارند. براساس نتایج مقیاس احساس حرارتی توسط مولفه­های فیزیکی - محیطی و مقیاس ترجیح حرارتی عمدتا توسط مولفه­های محیطی قابلیت پیش­بینی داشته­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Thermal Comfort Scales and Physical-Environmental Components; a Case Study of Shiraz University Administration Building

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahareh Bannazadeh 1
  • Shahin Headari 2
  • Habib Hadianfard 3
1 PhD Candidate, School of Architecture, Tehran University, Kish International Complex
2 Professor, School of Architecture, Tehran University, Iran
3 Professor, Clinical Psychology Department, Shiraz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Studies of thermal comfort can be discussed from different perspectives with a variety of objectives. Thermal adaptation is a gradual process of adapting to conditions and responding to thermal stimuli, which are classified into three categories including physical, physiological and psychological adaptations. Therefore, thermal comfort is not simply influenced by climate components; certain other variables affect it too. In this regard, several studies have been carried out to determine the effects of different components. The purpose of this study is to identify the simultaneous effect of physical and environmental components in the administration building of Shiraz University. The environmental components included air temperature, globe temperature, Wet Bulb Globe temperature and relative humidity recorded indoors and outdoors. The physical components included the surrounding view, location of users, windows and doors status, spatial layout level of noise pollution and light conditions. The field study consisted of three parts: distribution of questionnaires, observation and recording of weather data using a data logger. The questionnaires helped to collect thermal responses of the participants based on different scales such as thermal sensation, thermal comfort, thermal pleasure, thermal preferences, thermal acceptance and overall comfort. During observation, the researchers recorded the status of each environmental component. It was a Mixed-Mode case study of the main administration building of Shiraz University located on the northern side of the city of Shiraz, Iran, at 52.52°N latitude and 29.63°E longitude and the altitude of 1590 meters above sea level. The building has a northwest-southeast orientation in two blocks of seven and ten stories. The field part of the study was conducted in January, 2019 for four consecutive days from 8 am to 12 pm.  The results on 110 employees in winter show that, among the physical components, relative humidity has the most influence on the individuals' thermal perception. The simultaneous impact of the physical-environmental components also indicates that, in addition to the indoor air temperature and relative humidity, the condition of the openings has a significant effect on the individuals' thermal sensation. In this study, the temperature preferences scale was predicted by environmental components, and thermal sensation could be predicted by the physical-environmental components.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Thermal adaption
  • Thermal Comfort
  • Physical-environmental component
  • Office building
  • Shiraz
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